Departments: Engineering, Marketing, Customer Service. Minneapolis, MN. Dallas, TX. Sources of data may include, but are not limited to, the BLS, company filings, estimates based on those filings, H1B filings, and other public and private datasets. See link Jobs. HQ Cuange.
One teacher engages Need to consider inclusion as a priority students in finding how common human themes and Currently, economic priorities define education, leaving issues are dealt with in different ways by using examples little room for cultural, historical, and religious topics to from One Thousand and One Nights, from Indian literature, be explored in their complexity.
Ironically, history and and from stories by Naguib Mahfuz. Pointedly, even serious Sikh, or orthodox, or to develop a new Canadian identity for the twenty-first century? Obviously, our standards are applied to all religious and cultures? Why do schools are populated with other communities with we scrutinize multiculturalism, liberalism, capitalism, and similar and different legitimate aspirations. The way communism, but we are discouraged to examine religions? We need to listen to our in terms of racism, inequalities, and discrimination but not teachers and provide material, institutional, and intellectual apply the same critique to countries and cultures where support and professional development.
Any engagement our students come from? His research and teaching interests include Western education in the Muslim world and Muslim education in the Western world. Islam, national identity and public secondary education: Perspectives from Somali Diaspora in Toronto.
Race, Ethnicity and Education, 10 2 , — Teachers and teaching Islam and Muslims in pluralistic societies: Claims, misunderstandings, and responses. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 11 1 , 23— Agreed syllabi and un-agreed values: Religious education and missed opportunities for fostering social cohesion. British Journal of Sociology of Educational Studies, 53 3 , — The tensions teachers face: Public education and Islam. In Sarroub, L. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
He has been diagnosed with a reading disability. Although Akbar has strong oral language skills and average intellectual ability, he reads slowly and effortfully, struggles with spelling, and produces little written work.
According to Loreman, Lupart, McGhie-Richmond, and instruction designed to increase their reading proficiency. In perspective of children and youth with reading disabilities. Some students example—that matches the needs of the child Fletcher exhibit strengths in oral language skills, such as listening et al. Students Although evidence-based interventions are a key with reading difficulties may not be able to read and component of an educational program for children with understand content-area texts.
Thus, their lack of reading disabilities, it is also important to provide these proficiency in reading may constrain their ability to access students with appropriate accommodations. First, students demonstrate progress in grade-level curriculum with reading disabilities should be provided with targeted expectations.
For students with reading difficulties, text-to- In the case of Akbar who was introduced at the speech TTS programs are one of the most widely used beginning of this commentary, his educational program assistive technologies. TTS programs convert text on the can include various accommodations, such as assistive computer into audible speech.
This technology, therefore, technologies. Akbar will likely need instruction regarding circumvents decoding and fluency weaknesses and allows how to integrate the accommodations into his everyday students to access the text content. Although research on learning. In addition, it will be important to monitor the AT for students with reading disabilities is not extensive, extent to which the accommodations provided to Akbar recent findings suggest that TTS programs may be meet his needs.
Finally, a targeted intervention program helpful. Again, his response to the intervention program and social studies grades. We and others Edyburn, ; should be monitored carefully. Rhonda Martinussen is an assistant professor of special education and adaptive instruction at the Dr. Todd Cunningham is a postdoctoral fellow in the psychology department at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Toronto.
His research and teaching focuses on the integration of assistive technology and learning strategies for children with learning disabilities. Technology-enhanced reading performance: Defining a research agenda. Reading Research Quarterly, 42, — Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York: The Guilford Press. Literacy instruction, technology, and students with learning disabilities: Research we have, research we need.
Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, — Student perspectives on inclusive education: A survey of grade 3—6 children in rural Alberta, Canada. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 5, 1— Summer report of the Iowa text reading longitudinal study — Iowa Department of Education.
Each of these educational foundations constantly reminds Therefore, narratives that focus on the role of curriculum me of the diverse understandings, perspectives, and are integral to deepening our collective understanding of locations that individuals bring with them when they inclusive education.
Dialogue on the Eurocentric lens of engage in the work of inclusive education. As a result, to the Ontario curriculum is an important aspect. As I field, I must always remember that everyone is not work with teacher candidates in my social studies course starting on the same page. I must also clarify the purpose at OISE, I work through this inquiry: How can we address of this work: specifically, to make a difference in the lives the curriculum so that it provides multiple entry points of children by understanding that inclusive education for students whose voices are often left out of the learning directly connects to student achievement, student process?
I ask them to critically examine the components learning, student engagement, and closing the of the social studies, history, and geography curricula to achievement gap. As educators, we often overlook that we understand how they can construct and develop do not meet the needs of all learners, especially learners effective, engaging lessons and units.
Topics such as who represent racialized groups: that is, groups who culturally responsive and relevant teaching, critical experience social inequities on the basis of their racial literacy, cross-curricular connections, and awareness of background, colour, or ethnicity. The not be met. Teacher candidates are required to link involved in self-reflection to unpack their own biases. The the Ontario literacy expectations, identify one intent of this process is self-interrogation in relation to the component of content area, and think about the voices work we do with our students.
To assist teacher candidates as they begin looking at the curriculum in this way, I model the process. The first This type of example provides a good entry point for lesson is a jigsaw activity that provides an opportunity dialogue with other instructors. It allows us to discuss how to unpack, explore, and examine the various curriculum to make inclusive education practical for teacher documents.
For example, we take a close look at the candidates. By taking examples of my own work and using curriculum document for Grade social studies and these as tools for discussion with instructors, I engage in Grade history and geography. The teacher candidates critical dialogue on how to make inclusive education follow guiding questions: What examples are used?
What relevant. The Teacher-in-Residence position requires narratives are told and from whose perspective? What taking on the responsibility of a change agent, but I also voice and story might be missing? We specifically use recognize the importance of honouring all narratives. We time, and I need to honour where individuals are on their discuss how this resource only looks at and names continuum of learning.
I need to validate their thinking European explorers. Consequently, I introduce the while actively and critically engaging them in considering picture book Mathieu Da Costa Sadu, , about a black how to take the next steps in developing social action and explorer who sailed from France.
We then discuss other social justice work in classrooms and schools. She is responsible for supporting the teaching and learning of teacher candidates and providing professional development opportunities related to issues of equity and social justice. Addressing diversity in schools: Culturally responsive pedagogy. Teaching Exceptional Children 39 3 , 64— Mathieu Da Costa: First to arrive. Toronto: A Different Publisher. Our black living.
The drum, the amaz great land. The rhythms of the heart beat. The rhythms of the Africa, Africa, Africa. Not a country, but nation, Not a country but a s. Yellow, orange, green g in the sun, We look back sittin love who we are. Our black culture. The children and their families used diversity, respect, acceptance, and understanding.
The results disposable cameras to document personal stories of of this intervention show that these children made their neighbourhoods, favourite animals, toys, significant gains in their understanding of diversity, and activities, and things that children dream about.
The there were positive yet quixotic findings related to the research team, in collaboration with Apple Canada, word inclusion. A key finding of this study was eight schools. Each student chose a book from an array coming to understand the value of real-life stories as of 23 book covers and then explained why they chose an important component of an inclusive curriculum that book.
Children most often chose books based on and of intentional instruction in broadening interest in objects they liked or on a perceived personal others. Mehta showed that kindergarten children children attend to and are interested in knowing about of all ethnicities more often chose the white-skinned, other children: in this case, the attributes that mattered blond, and blue-eyed puppets, although not universally.
However, children they wanted to read. For this project, research questions and the methodology of the present Eastman-Kodak donated disposable cameras to families study. The following key research questions guided this in the program. The books were then used in the diverse populations of very young children foster a program to help parents learn about the importance sense of social inclusion and, in turn, aspects of of letter-sound knowledge and about the simple daily literacy development?
Junior and One hundred and eighty-seven children from junior senior kindergarten children who were participating in kindergarten through Grade 1, and across a wide a study of full-day early learning took part in interviews sociodemographic range of public and private schools, with the researchers using finger puppets. Six participating schools were located in the experiences in kindergarten by asking them to tell Region of Peel, a large suburban community west of about their day.
The methodology of having the Toronto. At area of physical mobility. Team members came together to develop a research The parents of children consented to the research plan. We decided to build on the success of the Peel 95 boys, 92 girls. Each participating child was given a We wanted to extend that methodology to help disposable camera and a book protocol outlining what children pay attention to the issues of diversity, social photograph to take for each page.
The book inclusion, and acceptance through the use of protocol included open-ended statements such as personalized family photograph books. Figure 1. Example, This is my dog, Spud]. Photo 5 This is a favourite place in my neighbourhood. Figure 2. My Favourite Toy Figure 3. My Favourite Place This is my favourite toy. It is called Lego.
I like it because This is a favourite place in my neighbourhood. It is the park. Children neighbourhoods, toys, and dreams. Children were told a story based on a wordless picture book practised saying the inclusion words in the context and then asked two inference questions involving a life of the pages they were viewing. The researcher and lesson they had learned. Children then retold the story, children talked about each page of the books on each and their use of metacognitive language was counted.
The inclusion vocabulary was Stage three: Teaching intervention and vocabulary reinforced and repeated throughout the small group measures time. See Figure 4. Children were divided into a book Figure 4. The Book Study Group book study group received their books and participated in the vocabulary teaching intervention. The control group received their books but did not participate in the intervention. Children in the book study group were withdrawn from their classes in small groups of four to six children with two female researchers.
The first researcher asked the children individually to look at a panel of eight book covers, which included a photograph of the child who created the book; to choose the one book they would most like to read; and to state why. Researchers visited each word reading, or comprehension.
Thus, we might classroom to interview each participant. No child conclude that the intervention did not have a refused to participate; however, a few children did not significant impact on literacy development within the complete all the tasks.
The vocabulary, early reading, short timeframe of the study. However, the fables and fables, and storytelling tasks averaged 30 minutes per storytelling tasks did contribute to important elements child. On two other days, the researchers returned to of inclusive curriculum, such as understanding the school and visited the children in small groups to others.
Our ongoing study with the Jackman ICS carry out the teaching intervention with the books. Book choices: Which books and why? Following the teaching with fewer ELL children had average vocabulary scores intervention, children also commented more range — The book study group on average had I like where she is. I like that she is on the end of the higher reading scores than the control group. And she gets her own computer! No fair! By carefully selecting book covers They used objects and life experiences—either familiar for each panel, we ensured that the children could not or of high interest—to make their book choice, rather choose a book cover belonging to themselves or to a than showing cultural similarities and differences.
This friend at the school. This was true both before and after they had interests in others. Table 1 shows the top four book participated in the teaching interventions. Since all the choices and descriptions of the children on the covers. Table 1. For example, while family photograph books significantly increased their children were looking at the books, we explicitly asked, knowledge of these terms.
Figure 5 and Figure 6 belong. Results showed that at significantly greater gains than the control group in the pretest children understood the terms diversity and their comprehension of inclusion and diversity. Comprehension of Inclusion Figure 6. Comprehension of Diversity Inclusion Inclusion Diversity Diversity pre-intervention post-intervention pre-intervention post-intervention 0.
Comparison of Understandings integrated kindergarten program. When we carried out of Inclusion a cross-school comparison, we observed an unusual pattern for the word inclusion. The children who were Inclusion Inclusion part of the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehab School pre-intervention post-intervention Authority school community, which is based on the 1.
Yet, surprisingly, while all other schools showed an increase in understanding of inclusion through the 1. Figure 7 shows the comparison among the sites that participated in the intervention. This finding related to the word inclusion may indicate the importance of explicit instruction and the need to be aware of the 0 breadth of that instruction when considering inclusion, ICS ICS Bloorview Public School 1 Public School 2 specifically, the background knowledge of the students.
The second challenge We believe that these books are exemplary in providing resulted from the significant initial differences among inclusive curriculum for young school children.
The book study schools began with higher average reading scores than the control schools, and this Two main challenges arose during this research that may have affected some findings on the literacy gains. The first was the brevity of the intervention period. As the storybooks reflect a diverse range of racial and points of view. Specifically, classroom teachers and and ethnic backgrounds, family structure, living school administrators can learn from these findings that environments, and other sociodemographic factors, the the concept of diversity and inclusion can be taught books present a rich source for discussion and even to very young children and that shared real-life exploration.
We will book study groups, particularly because of the initial examine the lasting effects of the book intervention vocabulary and reading advantage of the book study through ongoing research with a particular focus on participants. A longitudinal analysis will allow us to created a photograph book. Phase 2 will also A team of teachers is working on Phase 2 of this include testing of the practical applications of this research study.
This will include a longitudinal analysis research, which could not be undertaken within the of the lasting literacy effects of the vocabulary teaching scope of this research study. This will the Jackman ICS nursery to explore what these children notice about other children.
We are distribution and collection of consent forms and grateful to the Council of the Ontario Directors of cameras. Elizabeth Morley is principal of the Dr. Her research interests include knowledge building, professional development, Japanese lesson study, and inclusion. Richard Messina is vice-principal of the Dr. His research interests include knowledge creation, lesson study, and teacher change.
Clarity, 4, 6—8. Development of identity in Native Indian children: Review and possible futures. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 17 1 , 81— The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 3rd ed. Racial preferences in young children. Child Development, 42, — Social Development,14 2 , — Racial awareness in kindergarten children: A decade of progress?
The Canadian Modern Language Review, 55 2 , — Language and Education, 13, 1— Early Education and Development, 15 1 , 5— Family literacy in action: A guide for literacy program facilitators.
Toronto, ON: Scholastic Education. Writing development among young English-speaking children. L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 7 3 , 81— The Test of Early Reading Ability 3rd ed. Austin,TX: Pro Ed. Test of Phonological Awareness. Two cross-cultural understanding, and raise their critical secondary school teachers of English critically consciousness. The teachers also considered the impact examined their teaching practice and explored ways of of CRP on their professional learning.
An outcome of making their pedagogy more inclusive of diverse the project was the identification of teaching strategies students. The teachers implemented teaching that are effective in developing critical literacy in approaches that helped their students attain high levels English studies classrooms.
The empowered Ontario Ministry of Education, Critical literacy skills enable students to Educational research has shown that culturally deconstruct and critique the texts they read, and relevant pedagogy CRP is an effective way to meet empower them to create their own critical texts the academic and social needs of diverse students Morrell, Given these principles of diverse students to make learning more relevant and CRP, this project addressed the following research effective Gay, Ladson-Billings a outlined questions: three principles of CRP.
Second, students must student learning, engagement and achievement in develop cultural competence as a vehicle for learning diverse English classes? Collaborative action research Sagor, was student population in their English classes. Both teachers wanted to find ways to research process.
They were interested in I met with the teachers on a regular basis to discuss examining new instructional approaches and really and share teaching strategies and their experiences in liked the idea of having time to collaborate during this implementing CRP. These inquiry group meetings project. The teachers also met by themselves twice.
We also read and discussed various articles Good Teaching! Although these categories were used for her coming into adulthood. During the study of the organizing and analyzing the data, they are not novel the teacher used additional student-centred mutually exclusive.
In the literature circles students discussed engagement during class. To achieve such goals the some of the challenging concepts in the novel, such teachers created activities that included and valued the as the role of women, arranged marriages, challenges knowledge and experiences of the students, challenged of adolescence, and family relationships.
In one reflected in their overall achievement in the course. All students passed the course and most students interracial relationships, gang violence, belonging, achieved levels 3 and 4.
Most significantly, the striving identity, bullying, and acceptance. The teacher coupled students produced a higher calibre of work than they various forms of differentiated instruction with normally produced. South Asian students also culturally relevant approaches, such as flexible ability responded to the validation of seeing themselves in the groupings, guided-reading strategies, graphic curriculum. This high interest novel kept students and happiness intact….
Being a Muslim and a Pakistani engaged and deeply involved in thematic discussions. Students were assigned chapters of the novel to read, and then they prepared responses At first I was not really interested in reading the book to assigned questions. They first shared their responses because I am also a Muslim girl and from Pakistan…. I in small groups and then with the class as a whole. The more information about it….
The second Grade 9 English class read Shabanu To engage in culturally relevant teaching, a caring Daughter of the Wind, a novel by Suzanne Fisher approach is essential. The teachers demanded academic Staples. They guided students to set of knowledge was created, and they were eager to establish classroom expectations for behaviour and learn about other cultures. Both In this project the teachers engaged in critical literacy teachers made themselves available before and after through the use of alternative texts, developed lessons in school to assist students who needed help with reading which students critically examined the issues, discussed and coursework.
Camangian, This approach helps students examine essentializing. For example, in discussions with students their experiences and stretch themselves beyond their around the topic of arranged marriages, the teacher did own viewpoints and experiences. The teacher not reinforce stereotypes, but focused on challenges introduced the unit by asking students to use a KWL facing young women approaching adulthood.
In Chart to record what they know K , what they want discussing racialized communities and how their to know W , and what they have learned L. After cultures are represented, teachers are encouraged not reading the poems the students revisited the K column only to focus on how these are represented but also and examined the views they had held. At the start of the unit, some students any one group Sharma, The teacher created Discussions in the class enabled students who were not a space where the students felt comfortable expressing South Asians to gain a deeper and respectful their feelings by a establishing mutual agreements for understanding of South Asian culture, and the South discussions, b exploring areas of personal concern, Asian students felt a sense of pride.
The teacher noted c using think-pair-share to discuss ideas in small the following: groups, and d sharing experiences and personal The greatest area of impact was on the South Asian reflections in larger groups only when students felt students. They became empowered and felt valued as comfortable. They were able to The teacher created the following conceptual model to clarify issues for students where there were misconcep- guide the students through the unit see Figure 1.
Conceptual Model for Deconstructing Performance Poetry 1. Examine areas of disagreements and agreements. Reviewing: Discuss themes and social issues that are presented in the work. Reflect on these perspectives relative to standards of poetic analysis. Critique against social realities of their own and the author. Collaborating: Share ideas with other students in collaborative groups. Expressing Creatively: Create poetry reflective of their own realities.
Performing: Perform spoken-word poetry. Reflecting: Reflect on the process using writing journals. Sharing: Share insights, difficulties, and learning. The teachers had opportunities to inquire consciousness. The approach and results of this research critically about their pedagogy. One teacher wrote, can assist other English teachers to integrate culturally relevant teaching strategies in their practice.
The The more I think about this research the more I think teachers felt inspired by the success and engagement of about power relations in institutions such as schools and the students.
One noted in her reflection, how intimidated some kids are by the dominant culture. They do not that they were not aware of….
There was self-discov- understand the kids or make any effort to get to know ery… I gained a lot of inspiration from them … it is like them … it is important to understand that some of nurturing a plant and watching it grow. They are intimidated by the dominant culture of the teacher and sometimes mask this by inappropriate behaviour. Culturally and mentor their teacher candidates at the same time. The teachers was the head of the English department and sat on found that it took time to plan new lessons, various school committees.
Both teachers worked in incorporate new learning resources, and research areas large English departments, and this sometimes made with which they were unfamiliar. Both participants collaboration challenging. There were also challenges were associate teachers who hosted OISE teacher in making department-wide change in the use of the candidates.
The teacher candidates benefited from canonical texts that are privileged in many English seeing the CRP strategies implemented, but it was departments across Ontario. It also addresses the effectiveness of CRP in organization of courses. In this way teachers can fill in multicultural, multiethnic, and multiracial classrooms. This research will make their English curriculum more inclusive and inform teacher educators on ways to build praxis with culturally relevant offer practical approaches for other their teacher candidates and provide support for English teachers.
These include practical ideas related to associate teachers. It points to the need for teachers and engaging students in developing cross-cultural teacher candidates to be guided in processes of inquiry understanding, breaking down stereotypes, and seeing and reflection that allow them to examine their biases diversity as an asset in the classroom. Teachers can begin and assumptions and come to an understanding that a journey of culturally relevant teaching in ways that teaching is not neutral Morrell, It also allows suit their own teaching realities, trying a few them to recognize what in their own practices and activities at the start.
For example, they can actively seek belief systems they must unlearn and learn. What is important on this journey The project highlights the need for teachers to go is a mindset that values diversity, combined with a beyond their comfort zone and learn about other conscious effort and desire to challenge existing norms cultures in non-stereotypical ways to be able to assist and power relations in schools and in teaching.
These include practical ideas related to engaging students in developing cross-cultural understanding, breaking down stereotypes, and seeing diversity as an asset in the classroom.
We have learned that it activities. It was extremely important for the teachers classrooms. Most importantly, they gained a much in this project to try out new strategies in a better understanding of what it means to be a culturally collaborative forum.
Thus, to embed equity and relevant teacher, and they defined areas that they want diversity in their practice, teachers, particularly new to explore for further growth and professional teachers, need to be mentored and supported. The teachers have also committed to building a resource bank of alternative texts and resources that can be used across the secondary English curriculum. Her research interests are in the areas of diversity, equity, and social justice in teacher education and leadership.
Her research focuses on student engagement and success, teacher identity, critical pedagogy, and culturally relevant teaching practices. Untempered tongues:Teaching performance poetry for social justice. English Teaching Practice and Critique, 7 2 35— Culturally responsive teaching. New York: Teachers College Press. Gay, Preparing culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53 2 — Culturally responsive teaching: Lesson planning for elementary and middle grades.
New York: McGraw Hill. Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32 3 , — The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory Into Practice, 34 3 , — The National S. Towards a critical English education: Reflections on and projections for discipline.
English Education, 37 4 , — How to conduct collaborative action research. Teaching representations of cultural difference through film. Pollock Ed. New York: The New Press. With the continuous personal challenges with the other peer group filmed. The final recommendations of its participants need to be given product was a DVD entitled Growing New Roots: close attention.
According to Statistics Canada Drama Club. The ESL Drama home to More Club has been a part of the school for the last four specifically, Toronto welcomed the majority of these years and has produced two videos outlining the ESL newcomers.
In the TDSB, 53 percent of the students has informed this project and helped us have a language other than English as their first understand the data collected. In particular, we language.
Lave and Wenger program, a program for gifted students, and a wide emphasize the importance of ELLs playing variety of co-curricular programs. The related construct of legitimate and have been living in Canada for less than five years: peripheral participation is relevant to this study because 9 percent have been in Canada for two years or less, it helps us understand the role of interaction between and 11 percent have been in Canada for three to four ELLs and NSs in the formation and development of years Toronto District School Board, b.
The timetabling for English language learners ELLs This research project had three aims: is somewhat integrated with that of native speakers of English NSs. The more advanced ELLs have about 20 particularly in regard to their participation and percent of their schedule filled with ESL classes; the rest identity formation and development; of their schedule is with NSs in regular classes.
The ELLs were members of encouraged to become acquainted and build trust. After common purpose of creating a DVD in which they both groups of participants were determined, the would share their experiences, self-help strategies, and teacher met with each group several times.
They suggestions for peer, teacher, and parent support. A explored their sense of belonging and shared their detailed description of the stages of the project can be experiences, as well as talked about the barriers and found on the ESL Infusion website at challenges they faced in relating to each other in the eslinfusion. The stages of the project were documented. ELL to questions at various stages in the process.
There were also individual and focus group interviews with some Feelings of exclusion were experienced by both groups ELL and NS participants. No one actually cared. NSs expressed parallel what they were saying. That was one issue in that views and said they should take the initiative to engage group.
NS peers and be more accepting and inclusive in their interactions with ELLs. A few ELLs and NSs indicated The need to complete tasks or assignments in groups that anticipating challenges as well as looking for or play on a sports team that brought together ELLs alternative means of communication, such as athletic and NSs proved to be challenging for both groups for a activities, might empower students to overcome variety of reasons.
Table 1 summarizes the self-help strategies participants suggested at different stages throughout the project. In the school community, ELLs stated community. The most striking comment made by both that both parents and teachers could help them face groups reflects their belief that teachers should act as a challenges by being reassuring.
NSs called on parents and teachers to promote Table 3. However, now, I realize that my assumptions were wrong and that the At the end of the project, students were asked what ELLs could just feel shy or uncomfortable with Western they had learned as a result of taking part in this customs.
NS collaborative project. Their words capture the Connection to communities of practice conceptual message of all the participants. The between us even though there are problems. At one time or experiencing these challenges and that native English another, each participant had felt like they were on the speakers and English language learners encounter some periphery and needed the help of an insider to move of the same challenges.
I feel like I am more aware of toward the centre. The participants provided many some of my actions that fuelled the separation between examples from their lives at school, highlighting the ELLs and NSs, and I now make more of an effort to need for educators and parents to play the role of change that…. Listening to the stories of some of the expert in modelling inclusive attitudes and behaviours, other students has also given me perspective on the while promoting and facilitating interaction between different situations that I encounter.
Seeing the encouraged me to learn about the Canadian culture. This project move from idea to product gave these students a process gave me more confidence to get involved and sense of what is possible and helped them feel meet new and other people.
The following excerpts show how speakers are willing to be friends with newcomers. I have Overall, I have felt a lot more comfortable approaching many English language learners that I am good friends English language learners and having a conversation with with. At the beginning though, I thought most of them them.
I never knew that for some it is a very big difference coming to a It was a good experience to have to meet new people new country. At the same time, teachers can learn about how teacher preparation institutions.
At one time or another, each participant had felt like they were on the periphery and needed the help of an insider to move toward the centre. In them to develop new multimedia resources that allow future productions, we would like to explore particular for their many stories to be heard by educators. Our themes raised by students. These include dealing with experience in the production of this DVD has been discrimination of various kinds at school and beyond that every ELL and NS who participated benefited and getting ready for the transition from high school to from their involvement in the project.
In addition, post-secondary education. We would like to thank our director, editor, speakers of English, who took the risk to share and and videographer Genna Megaw and Jarrid Dudley, perform their own stories of interacting with each also a videographer, as they helped all ELLs feel and other at school. We appreciate the support of principal look like stars. Her interests include the diversification of the teaching force, the integration of immigrant learners, and the infusion of ESL issues and teaching strategies in initial teacher education programs.
Her research interests include identity, motivation, second language education, and teacher education. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved May 3, , from www. A case study on multi-level language ability groupings in an ESL secondary school classroom: Are we making the right choices? Unpublished manuscript. Facts and figures. Mother tongues. Mind, language, and epistemology:Toward a language socialization paradigm for SLA.
The Modern Language Journal, 88, — Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. A significant research PD contexts. The research team examined which of finding indicates that multiple contexts of professional the PD ideas teachers took up and what contradictions learning presented contradictory messages. Thus, the teachers faced across multiple PD contexts. This study teachers took up some ideas and left others behind, and focused on four major PD efforts in which five teachers they sometimes took up ideas that served conflicting participated during one year.
Ethnographic methods of goals of education. These recommendations are mathematics in a culturally relevant and responsive way, even more critical for PD that deals directly with and we investigated all the various forms of professional potentially sensitive issues around equity and social development at their school.
For a group of teachers to seriously engage with opportunities to learn in and across all of the various these issues, there needs to be some level of trust, PD contexts, and we asked the following questions: long-term commitment, and a willingness to accept What ideas do teachers take up as they participate in that there may not be quick fixes or easy answers multiple contexts of professional learning?
What Foote, This report outlines the major PD efforts that the Although many studies focus on both the teachers participated in during the year and describes implementation and the impact of the PD, the project what teachers learned from their efforts. During the year we attended doctoral candidate collaborated with teachers from an many of the PD sessions and worked to support teacher inner-city elementary school.
Prior to this project, the learning informally. The details of these PD efforts will research team had been involved with the school for a be reported under data analysis. We had worked with teachers once The particular elementary school had been identified a month to develop and implement inquiry projects in as serving a high-needs population in an inner-city which they investigated equity issues in their context.
The school served approximately mathematics classrooms. Five teachers, from Grades asked us to support them by becoming involved in two 1 through 5, volunteered to work with us. We attended additional PD efforts: a seminar they were attending and video recorded many of their PD sessions at that focused on culturally relevant and responsive various locations, and conducted interviews with the pedagogy CRRP , and their Ontario Ministry of teachers.
Over the year, we participated in as many identities, to raise awareness of power imbalances in PD sessions as we could for a total of 18 sessions in schools and society e.
We also conducted school. The guiding principle of PAR is major goals of each PD context and the major activities that the people most affected by an issue should be for teachers.
Teachers were charged with collaborating This report will focus on two types of data: the data on with their students or school communities to develop a the PD efforts themselves, and the teacher interviews. Three follow-up PD sessions participation. We selected statements that The teachers in our study focused on issues around highlighted the most common assertions teachers made recess and introduced PAR through a social mapping about what they had learned in the PD.
This initial activity allowed students to express their concerns about recess at the same time as they were In this section, we present brief descriptions of the four developing mathematical concepts such as major PD efforts that teachers participated in during measurement and visual spatial awareness. Students the year of the study. They CRRP Seminar series and Participatory Action Research also measured areas of the playground using standard and non-standard measurement as a starting point to Teachers in our study were part of a larger group of explore concepts of perimeter and area.
Teachers 30 teachers from six schools who participated in the embedded PAR further in their data management Culturally Relevant and Responsive Pedagogy CRRP lessons by having students conduct surveys and create Seminar series. They attended sessions that took place graphs based on their issues of concern about recess. They had every student is capable of learning mathematics and opportunity to speak with classroom teachers, to clarify of reaching high levels of mathematical proficiency pedagogical choices teachers made, and to examine through an abundance of practice and praise.
The student work and other artifacts of practice. The teacher then provides incremental EQAO standardized data; they focus on areas of challenges and encouragement to build student growth and choose specific expectations from the confidence through small successes and to develop curriculum, with the goal to improve overall student mathematical understanding.
JUMP provides lessons and school performance in those curriculum areas. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study activity. During the term, grade-level teachers gathered to examine evidence of student growth, obtained by The teachers who participated in this project attended a means of a scoring rubric that assigns an achievement- half-day PD session at the Dr. Eric Jackman Institute of level score to student work. The teachers toured the improve student achievement.
Teachers were not supported in making sense of the differences in the PD they were being offered. For example, some teachers in the two underlying questions for this project: What this study described JUMP as providing a way to reach ideas do teachers take up from their experiences in students who struggled in mathematics.
The main message teachers gleaned from the CRRP Seminar Series was the importance not only of seeing One of the messages that teachers took up from JUMP students as coming from diverse families and was the importance of practice for students in learning communities but also of building relationships with mathematics.
For of their classrooms. They also commented Further, teachers expressed high levels of enthusiasm for on the significance of having models of this type of JUMP, even though JUMP was not designed to be instruction. They noted the importance of building on student driven, and this meant following a set schedule student interests and argued that as a result, students of activities.
These contradictions were also evident in our classroom observations. For example, we found some Contradictions between multiple PD contexts teachers dividing their minute mathematics period In our observations of the varied examples of PD, and into two distinct approaches to teaching: a teacher- in our interviews with the teachers, we found that the directed JUMP approach for the first 20 minutes of a multiple contexts of professional learning lesson, followed by an inquiry-based PAR approach for presented contradictory messages.
In the work of the remaining 30 minutes. For example, the teachers complete individuals that need some guidance to shine spoke often of the tension between designing and not trying to make them all the same. For example, one expectations. A teacher observed evidence of the contradictions between could describe the same idea as both positive and various forms of PD, both in what teachers said about negative.
For example, in regard to the Teaching- their practice and what they had learned, and also in Learning Critical Pathways T-LCP model, one what they did in their classroom teaching.
Either independently or as a school community, practitioners can debate and discuss the contradictions that they face, in hopes of resolving them or lessening the distance between what they learn in the PD setting and what they practise in their classrooms. While this of education.
We suggest that future studies of teacher school and these teachers might have been unusual in PD should focus on the broader context of teacher the sheer volume of PD made available to them, it is learning across the school year. This type of research is certainly the case that countless teachers face similar necessary not only to understand how to implement situations.
Although most research studies of PD have and practices. While individual forms of who are struggling to make sense of multiple PD PD may have been of high quality, the multiplier effect contexts, we suggest capitalizing on the PD for the teachers was contradictory. Teachers were not contradictions and discussing them explicitly. Either supported in making sense of the differences in the PD independently or as a school community, practitioners they were being offered.
Her research interests include equity in mathematics education, sociocultural theories of learning, and critical teacher education. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study. Her research interests include equity in mathematics education and sociocultural frameworks for learning. Her research interests include classroom mathematics learning in linguistic diverse contexts and sociocultural theories of learning.
Video as a tool for fostering productive discussions in mathematics professional development. Mathematics teaching and learning in K Equity and professional development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Why the teaching-learning critical pathway and why now? Principal Connections, 12 1. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Derry Eds. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Learning among colleagues:Teacher community and the shared enterprise of education.
Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. Demers Eds. New York: Routledge. Data were collected support learning in a profound way Kohl, The children revealed increased acceptance minded, and understanding of individual differences. They began to identify themselves as critical Blue Books, university researchers and teachers thinkers and, in some cases, activists, which cultivated a collaborated in planning units of study based on stronger community within their classroom.
Its population includes students representing over 30 different language groups. This project involved an associate teacher from Her class consisted mostly of boys, and her instruction Driftwood Public School, her Grade 2 class of 20 incorporated many male-friendly instructional students, a teacher candidate from OISE, and OISE techniques. All participants worked and learned my class. Therefore, to support the implications for teaching young children.
Lamb, were constricted and stereotypical. As implicit leadership theory posits, individuals, including teachers, have implicit beliefs and convictions about what makes a principal an outstanding leader. By conducting factor analyses on data collected from a sample of teachers, we were able to observe how credible the GLOBE scales translated at the individual level of analysis, as teachers assessed behaviors and characteristics of principal leadership.
Table 10 identifies the underlying constructs of the second-order scales. Conclusions and Limitations of the Study This exploratory study sought to examine the underlying constructs of the second-order scales when analyzed at the individual participant level of analysis. Examination of factor pattern and structure matrices revealed that individual items had a variety of relationships with more than one factor.
The factors from this study did not load in the same way as the original scales. Before the next administration of the GLOBE questionnaire, the researchers should delete items and organize items by renamed factor constructs that were discovered and named in this study. There were several limitations to this study, which will also impact decisions before the next administration. The first is that the sample included primarily teachers as observers of principal leadership in schools.
Although principal leadership is expected, it may be that principals behave more as managers than leaders. The assumptions that teachers are observing management behaviors and characteristics, rather than leadership, may influence outcomes of the study. Due to principal leadership being evaluated and observed by district leaders, we may.
Another limitation was the design of the electronic administration of the questionnaire. First, it is difficult when seeking large samples of teachers from various schools, to provide a link to the electronic survey at the school level. The researchers encountered IRB issues when districts filtered the SurveyMonkey to advise that we needed IRB approval before distribution of the link in the district.
By sending the link to the school-level principal, the researchers were dependent on their distribution of the link to teachers. The next barrier encountered, once the link to the survey reached the intended participants, i. The researchers speculated that due to the length of the questionnaire, there were a number of incomplete questionnaires that resulted in a small, but adequate sample size for a factor analysis procedure.
Future data collection needs to consider a large sample size and results of this study should be interpreted with caution. With the next administration, the time it takes to respond will be addressed by a reduction of items on the questionnaire, and electronic links to the survey may be directed to professional organizations that provide direct links to teachers and district-level administrators.
Author Biographies Megan M. Megan currently teaches masters and doctoral level research method courses with emphasis on quantitative methods. Prior to. Barbara J. Mallory is Program Coordinator of the Ed. Current research focuses on doctoral education in leadership and global school leadership. Prior to joining the faculty at Georgia Southern University in , Dr. Her current research interests focus on mentoring the assistant principal, and international leadership behaviors and characteristics.
Melton earned her Ed. AU is among universities across the globe that has an institute that promotes the study of the Chinese language and culture. The AU Confucius Institute, however, is the first to be affiliated with a comprehensive academic medical center and the first in the Western Hemisphere to focus on traditional Chinese medicine. Prior to the appointment as Director, Dr. References Aime, F. The riddle of heterarchy: Power transitions in cross-functional teams.
Academy of Management Journal, 57 2 , International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 2 3 , International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3 8 , Brumley, C.
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Clark, L. Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7 3 , Commrey, A. A first course in factor analysis 2nd ed. Darling-Hammond, L. Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development programs.
Dorfman, P. Leadership in Western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures.
Leadership Quarterly, 8 3 , Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Fischer, R. Where is culture in cross-cultural research? An outline of a multilevel. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 9 1 , The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York, NY: Picador. Gibson, J. Organizations: Behavior, structure, processes 11th ed. Granello, D. Online data collection: Strategies for research. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness.
Hanges, P. House, P. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. Gupta Eds. Hofstede, G. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Culture and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, House, R.
Javidan, M. The multivariate social scientist. London, England: Sage. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, Review of research: How leadership influences student learning. Psychological Methods, 4 2 , Leadership and information processing: Linking perceptions to performance. Boston, MA: Unwin Hylan. McGregor, D. The human side of enterprise. Minkov, M. An empirical perspective. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18 1 , Northouse, P.
Leadership: Theory and practice. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Education at a glance: OECD indicators Measurement metrics at aggregate levels of analysis: Implications for organization culture research and the GLOBE project. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, Raubenheimer, J. An item selection procedure to maximize scale reliability and validity. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 30 4 , Organizational culture and leadership 4th ed.
Simonet, D. Five perspectives on the leadership-management relationship: A competency-based evaluation and integration. Toxic leadership: What are we talking about? Army Magazine, Tabachnick, B. Using multivariate statistics 5th ed. Velicer, W. Effects of variable and subject sampling on factor pattern recovery. Psychological Methods, 3, Has the capacity to inspire followers and to motivate others based on strongly held core values. Behaviors and characteristics are those of a visionary, inspirational leader, who is trustworthy and performance-oriented.
Has the capacity for team building and encouraging a common purpose among team members. Is integrative and diplomatic and displays behaviors and characteristics that are collaborative and non-malevolent leader.
Is self-centered, status conscious, and procedural. Displays behaviors and characteristics that are face saving; he or she will ensure his or her own security or the security of the group. Exhibits the capacity to involve others in decision-making. Behaviors and characteristics are those of a non-autocratic leader who seeks to make and implement decisions with others.
Demonstrates compassion and generosity. Behaviors and characteristics of this type of leader are supportive; this leader is one who is modest and sensitive to others.
Leads individually and independently, displaying the behaviors and characteristics of an autocratic leader. Autonomous is considered both a global CLT and a specific subscale. Structure coefficients reported in parentheses S. Some items that did not load on the pattern matrix did load on the structure matrix. Instructors typically expect new graduate students to be ready for the rigors of research and inquiry-based education.
Graduate students are often surprised at their own lack of preparedness for the research components of their studies, specifically, critical thinking and academic writing. While effective academic writing by graduate students is of paramount importance, it is a challenging issue for both professors and students. The researchers paid particular attention to the areas of concern in academic writing and postulating strategies designed to make graduate students more successful in their academic writing.
Keywords: Academic writing, graduate students, research, graduate programs, substantive writing. Introduction The shift from undergraduate and graduate academic writing is often fraught with difficulties and academic exigencies. Some new graduate students may be surprised by the expectations associated with graduate level academic rigor, especially as they relate to academic.
Faculty expect graduate students to have the ability to write well beyond what is usually necessary for term papers at undergraduate levels. Cooper and Bikowski found that several American universities require various forms of academic writing across disciplines, even though not all graduate classes may include writing components. Nonetheless, academic writing continues to be a key element in graduate degree programs.
Although some graduate programs have opted to forego the thesis requirement, the need to master content literacy is typically bound in graduate programs and discipline specific assignments. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to compare faculty and graduate student perceptions of graduate student academic writing preparedness.
This study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding graduate student writing and to discuss possible strategies to address gaps in academic writing preparation. Understanding Academic Writing The ability to effectively communicate research, theory, critical analysis, and philosophical perspectives has long been considered fundamental in the pursuit of a graduate degree; however, as Bair and Mader noted, there appears to be a lack of research on graduate academic writing.
Graduate students and faculty tend to have different perspectives on the issue of academic writing. For these researchers, substantive writing was academic writing, a higher and more complex type of written expression. This form of writing relates material to core ideas, constructs and conceptualizes arguments, and articulates the discipline of study at hand.
McWilliams and Allan. In their research, they discovered the efficaciousness of embedding academic writing skills and instruction throughout the graduate program.
Regardless of the fact that many graduate programs do not require a formal thesis for degree completion, there is a need for critical thinking and formal academic expression of thought throughout these advanced programs. The very nature of the graduate degree speaks of moving into a higher level of analytical, investigative, and research-oriented conceptualization. Academic writing is the vehicle by which this level of academic understanding is developed, expressed, and enhanced.
Helping students develop academic writing skills is more than an exercise of mechanical manipulation. It sets the student up for successful research-oriented review, analysis, summation, and application of the concepts included in the research itself. Understanding and applying academic writing skills at the graduate level helps the student develop an on-the-go ability to read, synthesize, and communicate technical information in an effective writing style, appropriate to the specific discipline.
Setting Criteria for Academic Writing Institutions of higher education must clearly identify and communicate the essential criteria for success in graduate studies and, by implication, what the institution regards as effective academic writing. Barrie found the identity of fundamental graduate attributes varies from one institution to the next and even among academic departments within institutions. The development of academic writing can be further complicated by cultural nuances of the students, given that graduate students come from a varied social and multicultural backdrop.
Findings such as this necessitate a closer review of the expectations of universities from their graduate students, which should include strong considerations of cross-cultural rhetorical modes. To expect all students to be at the same level of experience, expectation, and academic writing skill is to be remiss.
Hence, educational institutions wanting to impart academic writing skills should start with the student and determine where that individual is in terms of a graduate mindset and skills. The uniqueness of thought, conceptualization, and feelings possessed by each individual can be disclosed uniquely by written expressions.
When faculty help graduate students facilitate this writing expression, they encourage a level of individualism that is liberating for the student. Residuals of Academic Writing Simply because graduate students might find it difficult to develop academic writing should not deter universities from enhancing the skills necessary for substantive writing.
In fact, several residuals of academic writing have been supported by empirical research and data. As students move into a changing educational world, academic writing continues to be an essential proficiency for dominant reasons.
Academic writing enhances academic thought. Any type of critical or applied writing requires the thought construct to effectively communicate on paper that which is conceptualized in the mind. Elder and Paul b maintained the very exercise of academic writing is intellectual work; that is, it is a strenuous activity of the mind.
Without this high level of thought processing, the mind is vulnerable to negative, caustic, and base ideas and conceptualizations that are neither healthy nor positive for society.
Academic writing facilitates an in-depth understanding of the discipline. To master a discipline or area of study, one must be able to do more than memorize facts and numbers. Critical thinking skills must come into play to review, analyze, investigate, question, challenge, and inform.
Elder and Paul c maintained the inseparability of critical and creative thought. The student becomes the expert in his or her field of study by filtering the information of the discipline through focused, purposeful thinking. Further, current literacy theorists purport the significance of academic writing even in contemporary environments such as online courses.
Academic writing nurtures conceptual change and a higher level of meaningful reasoning. Academic writing underscores the importance of research and publication. In most academic settings, faculty members are required to publish scholarly work in order to be retained. In graduate schools, there is an increasing amount of emphasis placed on scholarly publications among students. Because the very act of writing in an academic format is driven by critical thought, there is a natural creation of depth of knowledge and expertise.
When graduate students are allowed to conduct research with faculty, their confidence grows when they write for publication Austin, It would stand to reason that academic writing across the. Academic writing can impact student awareness and development in the area of academic integrity. Academic integrity goes beyond the act of plagiarism, cheating, and dishonesty.
It is a function of lower reasoning skills. It is an adaptive response to the pressure of trying to succeed in graduate school.
Kanat-Maymon, Benjamin, Stavsky, Shoshani, and Roth found significant evidence to support a connection between the lack of fulfilment of the psychological needs for autonomy and competency, and academic dishonesty. Pecorari contended not all students who plagiarized on academic papers did so intentionally.
Inversely, a higher level of academic integrity may result if a student is intellectually stimulated to feel significant, capable, and connected in academic pursuits. Developing effective academic writing skills contributes to the satisfaction of these psychological needs. When professors collaborate with graduate students, they communicate and create a caring and supportive environment which helps meet these needs of students.
When scholarly mentorship includes the demonstration of academic writing skills, there is more opportunity for students to connect and feel significant McGowan, Austin underscored the importance and impact of faculty mentorship for graduate students by showing the growth of professional development in graduate assistantships with faculty members.
Academic writing is a continual process. Most researchers tend to see academic writing as a continual process, one that includes more than a mere course or workshop. Kellogg argued that the development of advanced writing skills takes a very long time in the life of a student.
Kellogg, , p. As graduate students make life transitions, their academic proficiencies do not always transfer onward with these changes Gunn et al. Therefore, it. Method The aim of this mixed methods study was to conduct a comparative examination of faculty and graduate student perceptions of graduate student academic writing preparedness.
The study addressed the following sub questions: a What are the areas of concern relating to academic writing? This study was conducted among graduate faculty and students in a College of Education at a doctoral granting research university in Texas. Using purposeful sampling, a URL containing a link to the survey instrument was delivered via email to 52 faculty members who had taught at least one graduate class within the year and part-time and full-time graduate students enrolled in the college.
The survey instrument included two open-ended questions and two closed-ended multiple selection questions. Respondents remained anonymous. Results were derived from analytical methods involving descriptive strategies of frequency distribution, percentages, correlation of unordered pairs by way of analysis of variance ANOVA and interclass correlation ICC coefficient for the closed-ended quantitative items. Open-ended qualitative items were examined through thematic and axial coding identification of recurrent themes.
Table 1 presents the questions and the emerging themes identified in the faculty and graduate student responses. Significant similarities appear in the areas related to analytical skills, technical skills and professional success. Graduate students, on the other hand, acknowledged that they received limited preparedness in this area. Figure 1 illustrates the comparison of student and faculty responses.
Table 2 illustrates the correlation for unordered pairs for this data. Slightly over half of the total variability indicates similarity in measures between faculty and graduate student responses for each category of concern,. This is consistent with the instance of only one strong similarity connected to the category associated with use of APA style and format of documentation. The low ICC suggests that the responses from faculty and students in this study may likely vary as much as random responses from members of a larger population of faculty and students.
It may also lead to an explanation of the wide variation in responses from faculty and students and the need for improvements to the survey instrument. Question 3 on the survey was open-ended and different for each respondent group, in order to capture data relevant to perceived differences among faculty and graduate students. Faculty were asked to comment about specific resources or strategies they would consider using in their courses to improve student writing.
Graduate students were asked about their undergraduate preparation for academic writing at the graduate level. They were provided an opportunity to expand on this question. Table 3 represents the emerging themes derived from the analysis of the qualitative data from question 3 provided by faculty respondents.
Consistent with. Additionally, faculty were supportive of the idea of requiring graduate students to attend academic writing workshops. As stated earlier, question 3 for the graduate students examined the impact of their undergraduate academic writing preparation on their graduate academic writing.
Table 4 presents the themes that emerged from the data. The emerging themes reveal that some graduate students communicated a detrimental impact on their writing due to the time elapsed since completion of their undergraduate degrees and participation in graduate school. Other themes included the differences between undergraduate and graduate writing, specifically with reference to the use of different styles and documentation formats such as MLA and APA. Question 4 provided a non-Likert scale list of possible resources or strategies that respondents would consider using and asked them to indicate all categories that applied.
Figure 2 illustrates the comparison of student and faculty responses. The responses to this question are indicative of the apparent importance placed on APA style and format for documentation for both groups of respondents.
The data also indicated a remarkable difference in the perceived need for a workshop on plagiarism. An ANOVA was performed on the data derived from faculty and graduate student responses regarding possible resources or strategies that respondents would consider using each category. The calculations of the data are presented in Table 5. In other words, of the variability within the measures, Further, the estimate of. The ICC in this instance signifies only a moderate extent to which the responses may accurately estimate the variance of measures of faculty and student groups.
This information may align with the differences in group responses relating to workshop resources as discussed earlier. Of particular note is the discrepancy in the perceptions of the two groups regarding mechanics of grammar and sentence structure. Among all the findings, this discrepancy in perception indicated the largest gap between the two groups. As Bair and Mader and Elder and Paul c maintained, academic writing is the vehicle through which scholarly expression and critical thought is conveyed.
In fact, critical thought and academic writing are natural partners in scholarly work. As McWilliams and Allan have suggested, such clarifications and support for academic literacy should be infused in the graduate programs. Further, opportunities to engage in academic writing should be multiple, varied, and ongoing. Kellogg commented on the time it takes for an academic writer to mature; thus, it is vital for students to be given ample time and opportunity to learn and transition into scholarly writers.
This is further heightened by the evident difference in the perceptions of plagiarism as an area of concern as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.
Limitations of the study included the low response rate of the graduate students. The low response rate may have been attributed to the timing of the survey, level of interest, and response time lines. The researchers recommend larger sample sizes for future studies, particularly for graduate students. Further, cross discipline surveys coupled with inclusion of other institutions could strengthen the analyses.
Conclusion Advanced academic writing skills are expected of students pursuing graduate studies. This study aligned with the existing literature on the importance of academic writing in graduate programs. Specifically, it highlighted the importance of effective academic writing to communicate scholarly ideas and activities. It would be prudent for institutions and their graduate programs to offer the necessary support for students to succeed in their scholarly journey as academic writers.
Author Biographies Dr. Jaya S. Her faculty affiliation is with the Department of Teacher and Bilingual Education, which offers a doctoral program and several graduate programs. She also serves as Director, Center for Teaching Effectiveness. Steve F. Maria E. She also teaches in an adjunct capacity in graduate programs in higher education leadership and administration.
References Aitchison, C. Teaching in Higher Education, 11 3 , — Austin, A. Preparing the next generation of faculty. Journal of Higher Education, 73 1 , DOI: Academic writing at the graduate level: Improving the curriculum through faculty collaboration. Barrie, S. Understanding what we mean by the generic attributes of graduates.
Higher Education, 51, — DOI English academic language skills: Perceived difficulties by undergraduate and graduate students, and their academic achievement. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4 , Writing at the graduate level: What tasks do professors. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6 3 , — Elder, L.
Critical thinking and the art of substantive writing, part II. Journal of Developmental Education, 29 3 , Critical thinking and the art of substantive writing, part III. Journal of Developmental Education, 30 1 , Critical thinking: The nature of critical and creative thought. Journal of Developmental Education, 30 2 , Gunn, C. Right from the start: A rationale for embedding academic literacy skills in university courses.
Kanat-Maymon, Y. The role of basic need fulfillment in academic dishonesty: A self-determination theory perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 43, Kellogg, R. Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of Writing Research, 1 1 , Kost, C. Student quick reference success guide to writing in the APA 6th edition style.
Presto, PA: Kost Services. Lapadat, J. Written interaction: A key component in online learning. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 7 4. McGowan, U. Academic integrity: An awareness and development issue for students and staff. McWilliams, R. Embedding academic literacy skills: Towards a best practice model. Murray, R. Facilitating writing for publication. Physiotherapy, 94, Pecorari, D.
Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic secondlanguage writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, Ramanathan, V. Individualism, academic writing, and ESL writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8 1 , If yes, how does this issue impact your success as a student and professional? APA resources style and format Online resources for academic writing Mandatory academic writing workshops Resources on avoiding plagiarism.
Table 4 Academic Writing: Impact of Undergraduate Preparation Graduate Students - How has your undergraduate academic writing preparation impacted your graduate academic writing? Please explain. Time since undergraduate degree Different format requirements Emphasis upon organization, coherence and structure Writing was basic. Spadano Rivier University.
Abstract Assessment has typically been an activity associated with teachers. This study investigated the vision of assessment as a continuous activity for both teachers and students. The research examined how embedding formative assessment into instruction informs teaching and supports learning. Six in-service and two pre-service graduate students enrolled in the course, Assessment in Mathematics Education, and participated in a qualitative study to examine and analyze assessment techniques embedded in a problem solving educational orientation.
Research data were collected in the form of reflective writings that analyzed, critiqued, and revised the application of formative assessments that influence teaching and learning by improving instruction and advancing growth in learning. Introduction Assessments are generally represented in two major categories: formative and summative.
Summative assessments are commonly understood to be cumulative evaluations, such as quizzes, tests, and projects, that produce a score used to grade students. The process of assessment is usually considered the responsibility of the teacher. This study investigated assessment techniques in learning experiences that included students in the process of assessment.
This research investigated the effects of embedding formative assessment techniques into instruction. Graduate students in the course, Assessment in Mathematics Education, were introduced to a problem solving framework and asked to examine formative assessment techniques used in a problem solving educational orientation.
The intent of this research was to provide in-service and pre-service teachers with the knowledge, skills, and behaviors to implement formative assessment techniques in their mathematics classrooms. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the growing knowledge base of recent reform initiatives in applying formative assessment strategies during instruction.
The goal of this research project was to investigate and promote the understanding of this new vision of assessment and advance its practice in the mathematics classroom. Literature Review Assessment has many purposes and corresponding results. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NCTM, ; NCTM, suggest that those purposes and results include monitoring student progress to promote growth, evaluating student progress to recognize accomplishments, making instructional decisions to improve instruction, and evaluating programs to modify programs.
Summative assessments are more likely to be used to recognize achievement over a period of time or to generate data to evaluate and modify programs.
This research study and literature review will highlight formative assessment and focus on the purposes of assessment that monitor student progress and shape instructional decisions.
Formative assessment informs and guides ongoing learning Klenowski, In the typical mathematics classroom, teachers are conditioned to play an evaluative role in student learning.
Expecting students to play an evaluative role in their learning is a relatively rare phenomenon. Shepard contends that assessment in the mathematics classroom be a continuous activity for both teachers and students.
Research suggests that when students accept a reasonable share of the work to self-regulate, they can focus their efforts toward the learning goals Brookhart, As assessment is integrated into learning experiences both teachers and students play an important role in analyzing and examining how assessment informs teaching and supports learning Popham, ; William, During the course of a lesson, when students assess their own understanding and learn what they know and what they do not know, they become proactive learners, central to the learning process, and they advance their ownership of understanding.
The value of embedding well-planned and well-implemented formative assessment into instruction is worthy of consideration. However, the research on formative assessment lacks clarity in methodology. What does a well-planned and well-implemented assessment scheme look like in the mathematics classroom? What constitutes a reasonable amount of the work for students to accept in order to self-regulate?
How do the students become proactive learners, central to the learning process? Methodology This research project contributed to the formative assessment knowledge base by examining a structured approach that compartmentalizes formative assessment.
In this research, a problem solving framework was introduced to students and a problem solving educational orientation is utilized to implement formative assessment techniques. The purpose of the study was to analyze formative assessment techniques and provide valid inferences about their effect on mathematics teaching and learning. Eight graduate students enrolled in the course, Assessment in Mathematics Education, were asked to participate in mathematics lessons that incorporated formative assessment techniques.
The students were asked to reflect on those assessment schemes for their value as an open and coherent process that enhances mathematics learning and informs instruction. The methodology of this study involved an emergent design with grounded theory. This research was investigative and attempted to facilitate and illuminate the phenomena surrounding the use of formative assessment in mathematics learning experiences.
The data that emerged were student efforts from learning experiences and assignments in the course. Along with the researcher, students in the course mutually shaped data to guard against deliberate or subconscious distortions by providing feedback through individual and classroom discussions as well as reflective writing assignments.
The four-phase problem solving framework provided students with a structure to solve problems. Given a problem to solve, students were asked to isolate their points of confusion into one of the four phases.
These activities within a problem solving framework required students to generate artifacts that evidenced their content knowledge and ability to use process standards reasoning, representation, communication, and connections as defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NCTM, These artifacts provide immediate evidence of appropriate and accurate resources. Students demonstrate their ability to devise a plan for solving the problem as they communicate a strategy for navigating from the problem state to the solution state.
This requires students to make meaningful mathematical connections using prior knowledge to build new knowledge. In this phase thinking or reasoning is essential. A written plan exposes reasoning and proof becomes visible. This plan should articulate the mathematically rational, clear, and coherent steps necessary to solve the problem.
Students demonstrate their ability in carrying out the plan for solving the problem as they engage their plans to effect solutions. Desirable efforts in this phase of the problem solving process demonstrate the rational, clear, and coherent mathematical gymnastics necessary to solve the problem.
Students demonstrate their ability in looking back at their solutions when they confirm the result of their problem solving efforts. Activity promoted in this phase of the problem. Students in the course were asked to examine assessment techniques embedded in each phase of the problem solving process during mathematics learning experiences.
Students were also asked to develop, present, analyze, critique, and revise their own assessment techniques as well as those of others. Coursework efforts were collected, analyzed, synthesized, and evaluated through semi-structured personal conversations, class discussions, and reflective journal entries.
Reflective journal writings were peer-edited to triangulate data and to refine the understanding of the focus of inquiry, the formative assessment techniques embedded in a problem solving educational orientation. The strength of the phenomenological descriptions involved the specific experiences as conveyed by the students.
Students were also asked to analyze, critique, and revise their own assessment techniques as well as those of others. There were no rewards or penalties for participation in this study. There were no risks or discomforts associated with this research project beyond that which might be considered typical risks or discomforts associated with learning.
There were no direct benefits to students for taking part in this study beyond that which might be considered typical benefits or rewards associated with learning. Research Findings The data that emerged were student efforts from learning experiences and assignments in the course, Assessment in Mathematics Education.
Each student stated that they gave their mathematics classes problems to solve. In classroom discussions and written reflections, each student recognized and confirmed the importance of providing a problem. The consensus was, summarily, presenting students a problem to be solved without providing students a problem solving framework to solve the problem had little educative value. Further, students commented on the importance of the teacher, or a more experienced peer, in providing hints, prompts, and suggestions as useful moves to help students that were having difficulty with the problem solving process.
These moves were instructionally instrumental in allowing the students to resume their problem solving efforts. This educative activity was considered valuable by placing teaching strategies where they were most effective and appropriate. The data highlighted that students engaged in a problem solving educational orientation were active agents, central to the learning process.
The data evidenced that process standards how students learn became visible when students navigated from the problem state to the solution state in the problem solving framework and were enhanced in a problem solving educational orientation. In reflective writings, the participants observed the importance of teaching and evaluating process standards. Discussion Our personal experiences in schools conjure images of assessment as grades related to quizzes and tests; an end-product of teaching and learning.
A new vision of assessment as a continuous and coherent activity appears as it is embedded into instruction.
Collectively, formative assessment research confirms its importance in the mathematics classroom. This research substantiates the importance of formative assessment as an integral part of teaching and learning mathematics. The study also suggests a problem solving framework serves as a structured approach that compartmentalizes assessment by isolating points of confusion into one of four phases in the problem solving process. Reflective writings suggested that using a problem solving framework within a problem solving educational orientation was considered a well-planned and well-implemented formative assessment.
This structured approach may be worthy of consideration by classroom teachers and for future research. This research may have implications beyond the mathematics classroom to include other content disciplines. The findings from this research may remove barriers that prevent pre-service or in-service teachers from utilizing formative assessment techniques in their classrooms by outlining an action plan for implementing a problem solving educational orientation.
The degree to which this research is transferable may depend on its universal appeal in the contexts of problem solving as a 21st century skill. Professionals in other fields may find value in the process of assessment as not only an activity for teachers, but also an activity for students. Teachers, business people, and behavioral science personnel may find this research useful or educational significant when they explore having their students assume a more active role in formative assessment.
This study was intended to raise the level of understanding of formative assessment. The examination of formative assessment as a means of improving instruction and supporting learning provided insights and propositions of practical working hypotheses for educational consideration. The research contributed to the knowledge base and may be a catalyst for future educational consideration. There are limitations to this study. The findings from this research pertain to particular events for a specific time, place, and.
Although methods of triangulation and mutual shaping were used to safeguard against possible bias, it should be noted that an additional limitation of this research involved self-reporting in its methodology. Further research may include a field-tested study in a K educational setting.
Future formative assessment research may also explore a quantitative analysis of academic growth over a longer period of time. Spadano taught mathematics at Westford Academy and presently holds a dual appointment as Associate Professor in the Division of Education and Department of Mathematics at Rivier University.
He has recently authored the book, Problem Solving Without Figures. References Brookhart, S. Classroom assessment in the context of motivation theory and research. MacMillan Ed. Hattie, J. Visible learning.
A synthesis of over meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge. Klenowski, V. Assessment for learning revisited: An Asia-Pacific perspective. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, and Practices, 16 3 , Lincoln Y. Naturalistic inquiry.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Assessment standards for school mathematics. Principles and standards for school mathematics. Nyquist, J. The benefits of reconstruing feedback as a larger system of formative assessment:A meta-analysis. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Polya, G. How to solve it: A new aspect of mathematical method. Princeton, N. Princeton University Press. Popham, W. Transformative assessment. Shepard, L. William, D.
Content then process: Teacher learning communities in the service of formative assessment. Reeves Ed. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Changing classroom practice. Educational Leadership, 65 4 , Wilson, L. Classroom and large-scale assessment. Kilpatrick, W. Schifter Eds. Gilley University of Texas at Tyler. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling and linear regression. In addition, front-line employees perceived they were not included in the decision making process.
This study expands on preceding research by examining the antecedents of PDM, specifically leader or manager behaviors that encourage PDM. Keywords: Participative decision making, teamwork, employee development, work-life balance Introduction Currently, there is a shift away from decision making residing exclusively with managers.
Gilley, ; J. Involving employees in decision making has far ranging effects for organizations. According to Konrad , positive outcomes of giving employees the power to participate in high-involvement decision making improves employee morale, worker retention, and organizational performance.
Additionally, Burris found that when employees are given a voice in decision making, it leads to higher quality decisions and improves organizational effectiveness. Therefore, our overarching research question in this study is: What characteristics of management behavior influence employee perceptions of PDM? Further, it is essential for the prosperity of organizations to create management development programs that encourage the involvement of employees in the decision-making process Wainaina, This study aims to determine the factors specific to managerial behaviors that contribute to PDM as identified by employees and ascertain how often employees perceive their managers involve them in PDM.
Literature Review The quality of managerial decision making is frequently enhanced when allowing and encouraging input from others Danish et al. In this article, we will highlight existing scholarship of PDM relevant to the study. Further, we will examine three current trends in business that improve PDM, which are employee development, teamwork, and change initiatives. The earlier work of Lewin and Lowin explained how PDM is affected by organizational culture.
They independently reported that organizational culture either embraces or stifles the practice of PDM. This definition suggests that PDM facilitates the empowerment of employees through the decision- making process. Further, Lowin urged. Russ posited that PDM is a collaborative process in which responsibility for making workplace decisions is shared between the employee and manager. Hashim et al.
First, PDM enables a greater pool of knowledge, which has the potential of improving both quantitative and qualitative decisions. Second, different perspectives may enable managers and employees to view problems from different vantage points. Third, greater comprehension is achieved when those individuals who weigh the alternatives of a decision have an increased understanding of why the decision was made. Fourth, PDM increases acceptance and motivation in those decisionmakers who take more ownership over the process and the decisions made.
Fifth, training in PDM helps participants gain experience in decision making, which enhances participant competencies. The sixth advantage is enhanced empowerment, which occurs when employees are actively involved in PDM. In the following section, we discuss three factors that impact PDM in the workplace. Employee Growth and Development Recently, Carbonell and Rodriguez-Escudero reported that PDM has increased in popularity among managers who are interested in developing their employees.
They provided empirical evidence supporting that employees who engage in PDM acquire a working knowledge of how to complete a project and also exhibit an increase in job satisfaction. By providing training, opportunities for employee development, and sharing of information, employees can attain the needed conceptual skills to become managers or top executives. Helping employees know their individual strengths and taking advantage of those strengths is a way to help them develop and engage in the decision making process.
In addition, guiding employees in the areas in which they are knowledgeable, allows manages to ensure their success DuFrene, Teamwork and Collaboration When an employee contributes in the decision making process of the organization, it makes them feel like they are a part of a team with a common goal, and exploring their selfesteem and developing their creativity DuFrene, For PDM to be effective, employees must be willing to express their opinions.
A collaborative approach between manager and employee can foster a common goal. An effective team approach can create an environment in which employees can be comfortable in voicing their decisions DuFrene, Organizational Change Management that utilizes a participative style, discovers that employees are more receptive to change than in circumstances which do not allow them to use their voice. The implementation of change is more successful when employees have an input into the day-to-day activities of the company and contribute to the decisions DuFrene, To successfully implement change, managers must encourage individuals to initiate new behaviors so that the desired outcome or change can be attained.
Implementing PDM can be a major shift in culture from an autocratic to participative management style. Employees that are receptive to change are also more willing to adapt to implementation of participatory decision management DuFrene, The majority of scholarship on PDM has focused on the outcomes of utilizing this method in organizations.
Far less empirical research has focused on specific managerial behaviors as antecedents of PDM. Once identified, this study offers a significant contribution to. The conceptual framework for this study is based on literature reviewed around PDM, which suggests that managers who promote employee development, teamwork, and change initiatives may be facilitators of PDM.
These concepts are depicted in Figure 1. H2: There is a positive relationship between managers who facilitate teamwork and collaboration and PDM. H3: There is a positive relationship between managers who effectively implement change and PDM. Methodology The study was part of a larger, long-term study of managerial practices. Data collection took place over six semesters.
Respondents represented all organizational levels front-line to executive in service, manufacturing, educational, professional, and governmental entities. The response rate was Sample characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
Measures The dependent variable in the study was a perceptual measure of employee involvement in decision making. Respondents were asked to specify, in their opinion, how frequently their manager involves employees in decision making. Responses were collected using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from never 1 to always 5. The independent variables examined in this study were derived from research on leadership skills and managerial behaviors.
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