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But even with the advent of farming, hunting and fishing were still important means of obtaining food. The bow and arrow were first used for hunting in the area around the year They ate what they could kill, grow or catch in the rivers and other waterways.
By AD, there were about 8, Native Americans, all Algonquian -speaking, living in what is now the state, in 40 different villages. By the 17th century, the state was populated by a mix of Iroquoian and Algonquian peoples.
John Smith labelled the Tuscarora as the Kuskarawock on an early map from , but they shortly thereafter moved west to join the Meherrin and Nottoway in Virginia. They are noted as the Akhrakovaetonon and Trakwaerronnons, which seems similar to Tockwogh. They were extinct as a people by the end of the 17th century, however. The following Piscataway tribes lived on the eastern bank of the Potomac , from south to north: Yaocomicoes , Chopticans, Nanjemoys , Potopacs , Mattawomans , Piscataways , Patuxents , and Nacotchtanks.
The area in which the Nacotchtank lived is now the District of Columbia. On the west bank of the Potomac river in what is now Virginia were the related tribes of the Patawomeck and the Doeg. Further west in the Appalachian Mountains , the Shawnee lived near Oldtown at a site abandoned around On the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake , from south to north, there were the Nanticoke tribes: Annemessex , Assateagues , Wicomicoes , Nanticokes , Chicacone , and, on the north bank of the Choptank River , the Choptanks.
The Tockwogh tribe lived near the headwaters of the Chesapeake near what is now Delaware. When Europeans began to settle in Maryland in the early 17th century, the main tribes included the Nanticoke on the Eastern Shore , and the Iroquoian speaking Susquehannock. Early exposure to new European diseases brought widespread fatalities to the Native Americans, as they had no immunity to them. Communities were disrupted by such losses.
Furthermore, The Susquehannock, already incorrectly considered savages and cannibals by the first Spanish explorers, made massive moves to control local trade with the first Swedish, Dutch and English settlers of the Chesapeake Bay region.
As the century wore on, the Susquehannock would be caught up in the Beaver Wars , a war with the neighboring Lenape , a war with the Dutch, a war with the English, and a series of wars with the colonial government of Maryland. Due to colonial land claims, the exact territory of the Susquehannock was originally limited to the territory immediately surrounding the Susquehanna River, however archaeology has discovered settlements of theirs dating to the 14th and 15th centuries around the Maryland-West Virginia border, and beyond.
It could generally be assumed that most of Maryland's southern border is based on the borders of their own land. All of these wars, coupled with disease, destroyed the tribe and the last of their people were offered refuge from the Iroquois Confederacy to the north shortly thereafter. The closest living language to them are the languages of the Mohawk and Tuscarora Iroquois, who once lived immediately north and south of them. The English and Dutch came to call them the Minqua, from Lenape, which breaks into min-kwe and translates to "as a woman.
They also conquered and absorbed other unknown groups in the process, which probably explains how languages like Tuscarora came to be so completely divergent from other Iroquoian languages. It also appears possible that the word "Iroquois" actually derived from their language. The Nanticoke seem to have been largely confined to Indian Towns,  but were later relocated to New York in Afterwards, they dissolved, with groups joining the Iroquois and Lenape.
Also, as Susquehannocks began to abandon much of their westernmost territory due to their own hardships, a group of Powhatan split off, becoming known as the Shawnee and migrated into the western regions of Maryland and Pennsylvania briefly before moving on. In the first European explorers sailed along the Eastern Shore, off present-day Worcester County. In John Smith entered the bay  and explored it extensively. His maps have been preserved to today.
Although technically crude, they are surprisingly accurate given the technology of those times the maps are ornate but crude by modern technical standards. The English name was preferred due to the undesired associations of Mariae with the Spanish Jesuit Juan de Mariana , linked to the Inquisition. As did other colonies, Maryland used the headright system to encourage people to bring in new settlers. Led by Leonard Calvert , Cecil Calvert's younger brother, the first settlers departed from Cowes , on the Isle of Wight , on November 22, , aboard two small ships, the Ark and the Dove.
Their landing on March 25, , at St. Clement's Island in southern Maryland is commemorated by the state each year on that date as Maryland Day. This was the site of the first Catholic mass in the Colonies, with Father Andrew White leading the service. The first group of colonists consisted of 17 gentlemen and their wives, and about two hundred others, mostly indentured servants. After purchasing land from the Yaocomico Indians and establishing the town of St.
Mary's , Leonard, per his brother's instructions, attempted to govern the country under feudalistic precepts. Meeting resistance, in February , he summoned a colonial assembly. In , the Assembly forced him to govern according to the laws of England.
The right to initiate legislation passed to the assembly. In Claiborne led an uprising of Maryland Protestants. Calvert was forced to flee to Virginia, but he returned at the head of an armed force in and reasserted proprietarial rule. Maryland soon became one of the few predominantly Catholic regions among the English colonies in North America. Maryland was also one of the key destinations where the government sent tens of thousands of English convicts punished by sentences of transportation.
Such punishment persisted until the Revolutionary War. The Maryland Toleration Act , issued in , was one of the first laws that explicitly defined tolerance of varieties of Christianity. Mary's City was the largest settlement in Maryland and the seat of colonial government until Because Anglicanism had become the official religion in Virginia, a band of Puritans in left for Maryland; they founded Providence now called Annapolis.
They set up a new government prohibiting both Catholicism and Anglicanism. The Puritan Revolt lasted until , when the Calvert family regained control and re-enacted the Toleration Act.
In , following the accession of a Protestant monarchy in England, rebels against the Catholic regime in Maryland overthrew the government and took power. Lord Baltimore was stripped of his right to govern the province, though not of his territorial rights. Maryland was designated as a royal province, administered by the crown via appointed governors until At that time, Benedict Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore , having converted to Anglicanism , was restored to proprietorship.
The Protestant revolutionary government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign. Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland.
The Anglican Church was made the established church of the colony. Mary's City is now an archaeological site, with a small tourist center.
Just as the city plan for St. Mary's City reflected the ideals of the founders, the city plan of Annapolis reflected those in power at the turn of the 18th century. The plan of Annapolis extends from two circles at the center of the city — one including the State House and the other the established Anglican St. Anne's Church now Episcopal. The plan reflected a stronger relationship between church and state, and a colonial government more closely aligned with Protestant churches.
General British policy regarding immigration to all British America would be reflected broadly in the Plantation Act of Based on an incorrect map, the original royal charter granted to Maryland the Potomac River and territory northward to the fortieth parallel. This was found to be a problem, as the northern boundary would have put Philadelphia , the major city in Pennsylvania , within Maryland.
The Calvert family , which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family , which controlled Pennsylvania, decided in to engage two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon , to establish a boundary between the colonies.
They surveyed what became known as the Mason—Dixon Line , which became the boundary between the two colonies. The crests of the Penn family and of the Calvert family were put at the Mason—Dixon line to mark it. In Chesapeake society that is, colonial Virginia and Maryland sports occupied a great deal of attention at every social level. Horse racing was sponsored by the wealthy gentry plantation owners, and attracted ordinary farmers as spectators and gamblers.
Selected slaves often became skilled horse trainers. Horse racing was especially important for knitting the gentry together. The race was a major public event designed to demonstrate to the world the superior social status of the gentry through expensive breeding and training of horses, boasting and gambling, and especially winning the races themselves. When they publicly bet a large fraction of their wealth on their favorite horse, they expressed competitiveness, individualism, and materialism as the core elements of gentry values.
Maryland did not at first favor independence from Great Britain and gave instructions to that effect to its delegates to the Second Continental Congress.
During this initial phase of the Revolutionary period , Maryland was governed by a series of conventions of the Assembly of Freemen. The first convention of the Assembly lasted four days, from June 22 to 25, All sixteen counties then existing were represented by a total of 92 members; Matthew Tilghman was elected chairman.
The eighth session decided that the continuation of an ad hoc government by the convention was not a good mechanism for all the concerns of the province. A more permanent and structured government was needed. So, on July 3, , they resolved that a new convention be elected that would be responsible for drawing up their first state constitution , one that did not refer to parliament or the king, but would be a government " On August 1, all freemen with property elected delegates for the last convention.
The ninth and last convention was also known as the Constitutional Convention of They drafted a constitution, and when they adjourned on November 11, they would not meet again. The conventions were replaced by the new state government which the Maryland Constitution of had established. Thomas Johnson became the state's first elected governor.
On March 1, , the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was ratified and took effect with the confirmation signing of the Articles by two Maryland delegates in Philadelphia. The articles had initially been submitted to the states on November 17, , but the ratification process dragged on for several years, stalled by an interstate quarrel over claims to uncolonized land in the west of the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River.
Maryland was the last hold-out; it refused to ratify until larger states like Virginia and New York agreed to rescind their claims to lands in what became the old Northwest Territory and the Southwest Territory. In when Maryland requested France provide naval forces in the Chesapeake Bay for protection from the British who were conducting raids in the lower part of the bay , he indicated that French Admiral Destouches would do what he could but La Luzerne also "sharply pressed" Maryland to ratify the Articles, thus suggesting the two issues were related.
The Senate then adjourned "to the first Monday in August next. No significant battles of the American Revolutionary War — occurred in Maryland.
However, this did not prevent the state's soldiers from distinguishing themselves through their service. General George Washington was impressed with the Maryland regulars the " Maryland Line " who fought in the Continental Army and, according to one tradition, this led him to bestow the name "Old Line State" on Maryland. Hanson was the first person to serve a full term with the title of "President of the United States in Congress Assembled" under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
Annapolis served as the temporary United States capital from November 26, , to June 3, , and the Confederation Congress met in the recently completed Maryland State House.
Annapolis was a candidate to become the new nation's permanent capital before the site along the Potomac River was selected for the District of the Columbia. It was in the old Senate chamber  that General George Washington famously resigned his commission as commander in chief of the Continental Army on December 23, It was also there that the Treaty of Paris of , which ended the Revolutionary War , was ratified by Congress on January 14, In , Governor William Smallwood called together and convened the state convention in order to decide whether to ratify the proposed U.
The majority of the votes at the convention were in favor of ratification, and Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the Constitution.
The American Revolution stimulated the domestic market for wheat and iron ore, and flour milling increased in Baltimore. Iron ore transport greatly boosted the local economy. By Baltimore had become one of the major cities of the new republic. The British naval blockade during the War of hurt Baltimore's shipping, but also freed merchants and traders from British debts, which along with the capture of British merchant vessels furthered the city's economic growth.
The city had a deepwater port. In the early 19th century, many business leaders in Maryland were looking inland, toward the western frontier, for economic growth potential.
The challenge was to devise a reliable means to transport goods and people. The National Road and private turnpikes were being completed throughout the state, but additional routes and capacity were needed. Following the success of the Erie Canal constructed —25 and similar canals in the northeastern states, leaders in Maryland were also developing plans for canals. After several failed canal projects in the Washington, D.
The Baltimore business community viewed this project as a competitive threat. The geography of the Baltimore area made building a similar canal to the west impractical, but the idea of constructing railroads was beginning to gather support in the s. In city leaders obtained a charter from the Maryland General Assembly to build a railroad to the Ohio River. All of these came under the control of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Baltimore's seaport and good railroad connections fostered substantial growth during the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century.
Many manufacturing businesses were established in Baltimore and the surrounding area after the Civil War. Cumberland was Maryland's second largest city in the 19th century, with ample nearby supplies of coal, iron ore and timber. The city was a major manufacturing center, with industries in glass, breweries, fabrics and tinplate. The mill was purchased by Bethlehem Steel in , and it became the world's largest steel mill by the midth century, employing tens of thousands of workers.
In , by order of the Maryland state legislature, the non-religious St. Mary's Female Seminary was founded in St. Mary's City. This would later become St.
Mary's College of Maryland , the state's public honors college. Since the abolition of anti-Catholic laws [ citation needed ] in the early s, the Catholic population rebounded considerably. The Maryland Catholic population began its resurgence with large waves of Irish Catholic immigration spurred by the Great Famine —49 and then continued through the first half of the 20th century.
After the Revolution, the United States Congress approved construction of six heavy frigates to form a nucleus of the United States Navy. Constellation became the first official U.
Two notable battles occurred in the state. The first was the Battle of Bladensburg on August 24, , just outside the national capital, Washington, D. The British army routed the American militiamen, who fled in confusion, and went on to capture Washington, D.
They burned and looted major public buildings, forcing President James Madison to flee to Brookeville, Maryland. The British next marched to Baltimore , where they hoped to strike a knockout blow against the demoralized Americans. Baltimore was not only a busy port but also suspected of harboring many of the privateers despoiling British ships.
The city's defenses were under the command of Major General Samuel Smith , an officer and commander of the Maryland state militia and a United States senator.
Baltimore had been well fortified with excellent supplies and some 15, troops. Maryland militia fought a determined delaying action at the Battle of North Point , during which a Maryland militia marksman shot and killed the British commander, Major General Robert Ross.
The battle bought enough time for Baltimore's defenses to be strengthened. After advancing to the edge of American defenses, the British halted their advance and withdrew. With the failure of the land advance, the sea battle became irrelevant and the British retreated. Their defense was augmented by the sinking of a line of American merchant ships at the adjacent entrance to Baltimore Harbor in order to thwart passage of British ships.
The attack began on the morning of September 13, as the British fleet of some nineteen ships began pounding the fort with rockets and mortar shells. After an initial exchange of fire, the British fleet withdrew just beyond the 1. For the next 25 hours, they bombarded the outmanned Americans.
On the morning of September 14, an oversized American flag , which had been raised before daybreak, flew over Fort McHenry. The British knew that victory had eluded them. It later became the country's national anthem. Maryland was a border state , straddling the North and South. As in Virginia and Delaware , some planters in Maryland had freed their slaves in the years after the Revolutionary War.
By Maryland's free black population comprised After John Brown 's raid in on Harper's Ferry, Virginia , some citizens in slaveholding areas began forming local militias for defense. Of the population of ,, about 60, Marylanders joined the Union and about 25, fought for the Confederacy.
The political alignments of each group generally reflected their economic interests, with slaveholders and people involved in trade with the South most likely to favor the Confederate cause, and small farmers and merchants outside the major cities and in western Maryland allied with the Union. In the election, Lincoln received only one vote in Prince George's County , a center of large plantations.
The first bloodshed of the war occurred in Baltimore when the 6th Massachusetts Militia battled an attacking mob while marching between railroad stations on April 19, Hicks , a slave owner from the Eastern Shore , burn the railroad bridges and cut the telegraph lines leading to Baltimore to prevent further troops from entering the state.
Hicks reportedly approved this proposal. These actions were addressed in the famous federal court case of Ex parte Merryman. Maryland remained part of the Union during the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln 's strong hand suppressing violence and dissent in Maryland and the belated assistance of Governor Hicks played important roles.
Hicks worked with federal officials to stop further violence. Lincoln promised to avoid having Northern defenders march through Baltimore while en route to protect the acutely endangered federal capital. The majority of forces took a slow route by boat. Massachusetts militia general Benjamin F. Butler used the water route after learning about the troubles in Baltimore.
He commandeered the P. He put some on the old Navy training ship frigate, USS Constitution "Old Ironsides" and moved it off shore beyond reach of easy attack. They camped that evening in the Rotunda, which was not yet completed.
An additional unit was sent up Pennsylvania Avenue to reinforce the White House , where the President greeted them with relief. Marylanders sympathetic to the South easily crossed the Potomac River to join and fight for the Confederacy.
Exiles organized a "Maryland Line" in the Army of Northern Virginia which consisted of one infantry regiment, one infantry battalion, two cavalry battalions and four battalions of artillery. According to the best extant records, up to 25, Marylanders went south to fight for the Confederacy. Many of the Union troops were said to enlist on the promise of home garrison duty. Maryland's naval contribution, the relatively new sloop-of-war USS Constellation was flagship of the US Africa Squadron from to and continued in this role during the war.
In this period, she disrupted the African slave trade by interdicting three slave ships and releasing the imprisoned slaves. The last of the ships was captured at the outbreak of the Civil War: Constellation overpowered the slaver brig Triton in African coastal waters. Constellation spent much of the war as a deterrent to Confederate cruisers and commerce raiders in the Mediterranean Sea. A Union artillery garrison was placed on Federal Hill with express orders to destroy the city should Southern sympathizers overwhelm law and order there.
Butler occupied the hill in the middle of the night. Butler and his troops erected a small fort, with cannon pointing towards the central business district. Their goal was to guarantee the allegiance of the city and the state of Maryland to the federal government under threat of force.
This fort and the Union occupation persisted for the duration of the Civil War. A large flag, a few cannon, and a small Grand Army of the Republic monument remain to testify to this period of the hill's history. Because Maryland remained in the Union, it fell outside the scope of the Emancipation Proclamation. A constitutional convention in culminated in the passage of a new state constitution on November 1 of that year.
Article 24 of that document outlawed the practice of slavery. A campaign by state politician John Pendleton Kennedy and others ensured that abolishment of slavery would be in the new document, and the issue was hotly contested for nearly a year throughout the state. In the end the elimination of slavery was approved by a 1,vote margin. The right to vote was extended to non-white males in the Maryland Constitution of , which is still in effect today. The largest and most significant battle fought in the state was the Battle of Antietam , fought on September 17, , near Sharpsburg.
The battle was the culmination of Robert E. Lee 's Maryland Campaign , which aimed to secure new supplies, recruit fresh soldiers from among the considerable pockets of Confederate sympathies in Maryland, and to impact public opinion in the North. With those goals, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, consisting of about 40, men, had entered Maryland following their recent victory at Second Bull Run.
While Major General George B. McClellan 's 87,man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, a Union soldier discovered a mislaid copy of the detailed battle plans of Lee's army.
The order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically to Harpers Ferry, West Virginia , and Hagerstown, Maryland , thus making each subject to isolation and defeat in detail if McClellan could move quickly enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and position his forces based on it, thus endangering a golden opportunity to defeat Lee decisively.
The armies met near the town of Sharpsburg by Antietam Creek. Although McClellan arrived in the area on September 16, his trademark caution delayed his attack on Lee, which gave the Confederates more time to prepare defensive positions and allowed Longstreet's corps to arrive from Hagerstown and Jackson's corps, minus A.
Hill 's division, to arrive from Harpers Ferry. McClellan's two-to-one advantage in the battle was almost completely nullified by a lack of coordination and concentration of Union forces, which allowed Lee to shift his defensive forces to parry each thrust. Although a tactical draw, the Battle of Antietam was considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war. It forced the end of Lee's invasion of the North.
It also was enough of a victory to enable President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which took effect on January 1, He had been advised by his Cabinet to make the announcement after a Union victory, to avoid any perception that it was issued out of desperation. The Union's winning the Battle of Antietam also may have dissuaded the governments of France and Great Britain from recognizing the Confederacy. Available online 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
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